On January 17, 1893, the Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown, and replaced by a Provisional Government. This Provisional Government concluded an annexation treaty with the United States, that was submitted to the Senate on February 15, 1893 by President Benjamin Harrison. After Cleveland’s inauguration the following month, the treaty was withdrawn from consideration on March 9, 1893.

Cleveland was a friend of Liliuokalani’s, and upon taking office, worked diligently to restore her to the throne. On March 11, 1893, Cleveland called upon Blount to undertake a secret investigation into the overthrow. This investigation by Blount lasted from his arrival in Hawaii on March 29, 1893 until the submission of his final report on July 17, 1893.

This report was blistering in its disdain for the actions of Minister Stevens and the landing of U.S. troops during the revolution. The firm contention was that it was only through the direct action of the U.S. that the Queen was overthrown.

Acting upon this report, Cleveland instructed Minister Willis in Hawai`i to negotiate the reinstatement of Liliuokalani in return for amnesty to those involved in the overthrow. The Queen refused to back down on her demands for retribution against the Provisional Government until December 18, 1893, at which point Minister Willis presented Cleveland’s demand for reinstatement President Sanford Dole, who flatly refused.

Unbeknownst to Willis at the time, Cleveland had referred the matter to Congress on December 18, 1893, convinced that further “executive action” was not going to bring the matter to conclusion:

…Though I am not able now to report a definite change in the actual situation, I am convinced that the difficulties lately created both here and in Hawaii and now standing in the way of a solution through Executive action of the problem presented, render it proper, and expedient, that the matter should be referred to the broader authority and discretion of Congress[emphasis added], with a full explanation of the endeavor thus far made to deal with the emergency and a statement of the considerations which have governed my action…

…I therefore submit this communication with its accompanying exhibits, embracing Mr. Blount’s report, the evidence and statements taken by him at Honolulu, the instructions given to both Mr. Blount and Minister Willis, and correspondence connected with the affair in hand.

In commending this subject to the extended powers and wide discretion of the Congress [emphasis added], I desire to add the assurance that I shall be much gratified to cooperate in any legislative plan which may be devised for the solution of the problem before us which is consistent with American honor, integrity and morality.

GROVER CLEVELAND
Excecutive Mansion,
Washington, December 18, 1893

Cleveland’s letter to Congress was filled with disdain for the legitimacy of the Provisional Government, and support for the reinstatement of the Queen. There could have been no stronger enemy of the Provisional Government, nor no stauncher friend of the Queen.

How is it, then that on July 24, 1894, the Cleveland administration supported the recognition of the Provisional Government? On page 1342 of the Blount Report, Minister Willis clearly stated that despite the Queen’s protests, the Provisional Government had been recognized by the United States, and “this was the final decision of the Senate”. On page 1343 of the Blount Report, the Republic of Hawaii, that was created by the Provisional Government, had been explicitly recognized by the Cleveland administration. On January 9, 1895, on page 1375 of the Blount Report, the Cleveland administration made it clear that the Republic of Hawaii was the legitimate successor to the treaties formerly held by the Kingdom of Hawaii, and that plans for a British undersea cable must be negotiated as per the reciprocity treaty with the U.S.

What could possibly have happened between December 18, 1893, and July 24, 1894 that would have turned Cleveland against the Queen?

As Paul Harvey says, and now for the rest of the story…

The Congress responded to Cleveland’s referral of December 18, 1893 with a further investigation of the topics covered in the Blount Report. They held hearings from December 27, 1893 to February 7, 1894, and submitted their final report on February 26, 1894.

This investigation discovered that despite Blount’s and Cleveland’s assertions that the overthrow was instigated and aided by the U.S., that in fact the U.S. troops had remained completely neutral, and that there was no reason to believe that the overthrow was a result of U.S. actions. From pages 367-368 of the Morgan Report:

In landing the troops from the Boston there was no demonstration of actual hostilities, and their conduct was as quiet and as respectful as it had been on many previous occasions when they were landed for the purpose of drill and practice. In passing the palace on their way to the point at which they were halted, the Queen appeared upon the balcony and the troops respectfully saluted her by presenting arms and dipping the flag, and made no demonstration of any hostile intent. Her attitude at that time was that of helplessness, because she found no active or courageous support in her isolated position, which was self-imposed and was regretted by few of her former subjects. In this condition of Hawaii the laws for the protection of life and property were, in fact, suspended so far as the executive power was concerned, and the citizens of the United States in Honolulu and all the islands, and their property rights, were virtually outlawed. The citizens of Honolulu were not held amenable to the civil authorities, but were treated by the Queen, as well as by the people, as if the country was in a state of war. A policeman was shot down on the streets by a person who was conducting a wagon loaded with arms to the place of rendezvous where the people had assembled, and no action was taken for the purpose of arresting or putting on trial the man who did the shooting.

In a country where there is no power of the law to protect the citizens of the United States there can be no law of nations nor any rule of comity that can rightfully prevent our flag from giving shelter to them under the protection of our arms, and this without reference to any distress it may give to the Queen who generated the confusion, or any advantage it might give to the people who are disputing her right to resume or to hold her regal powers. In every country where there is no effective chief executive authority, whether it is a newly-discovered island where only savage government prevails, or one where the government is paralyzed by internal feuds, it is the right, claimed and exercised by all civilized nations, to enter such a country with sovereign authority to assert and protect the rights of its citizens and their property, and to remain there without the invitation of anybody until civil government shall have been established that is adequate, in a satisfactory sense, for their protection.

The committee agree that such was the condition of the Hawaiian Government at the time that the troops were landed in Honolulu from the steam warship Boston; that there was then an interregnum in Hawaii as respects the executive office; that there was no executive power to enforce the laws of Hawaii, and that it was the right of the United States to land troops upon those islands at any place where it was necessary in the opinion of our minister to protect our citizens.

The final conclusion of the Congress was implemented in a Senate resolution, May 31, 1894:

In the Senate of the United States, May 31, 1894.

Resolved, That of right-it-belongs wholly to the people of the Hawaiian Islands to establish and maintain their own form of Government and domestic policy; that the United States ought in no wise to interfere therewith, and that any intervention in the political affairs of these islands by any other Government will be regarded as an act unfriendly to the United States.

Although quoted by sovereignty websites, this resolution was actually the final admonition against interference with the lawful Provisional Government of Hawaii. It was received by Minister Willis in Hawaii on June 16, 1894 and was protested by Liliuokalani on June 21, 1894.

Cleveland explicitly accepted the verdict of the Congress on the facts of the matter, abandoned all efforts to reinstate the Queen, and treated both the Provisional Government and the Republic of Hawaii as the internationally recognized lawful successors of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Despite his strong words of December 18, 1893, after the thorough investigation conducted by the Morgan Committee, he never again questioned the legitimacy of the overthrow, or the respectful conduct of the U.S. troops during that time.

So those who wish to base their case for Hawaiian sovereignty on the letter written by Cleveland on December 18, 1893 should look carefully at the reply that Cleveland got on February 26, 1894, and his actions after receiving that reply. If they are to take his words of December 18, 1893 as sincere and honest, they must also accept his actions after February 26, 1894 in the same light – a light that is not flattering to the cause of sovereignty activists.

The President of the United States, Grover Cleveland, accepted that the Provisional Government of Hawaii was legitimate, and that the U.S. had nothing to do with the overthrow. But only if you read the rest of the story.

16 Thoughts on “The Rest Of The Story

  1. mana on 1/6/2006 at 8:31 pm said:

    Oh puhleeez!

    Cleveland caved because of public sentiment. Not because of politics. Go back and research the newspapers of that time. You’ll find many a critic on Clevelands ass about being ‘N****** freindly’ (sorry, but thats what we were called). Nice try Jere. Nice piece of crap proganda too. I especially like the subtle opinionated ‘facts’. Very Conklinesque of you.

  2. Care to give me a single reference? Given Cleveland’s blistering rhetoric about how it was an act of war, I find it hard to believe that public opinion would be sufficient to change his mind.

    But then again, if he was someone so easily influenced by public sentiment, then how can we trust that his initial bluster was anything but cynical, calculated ploy?

    Either you accept Cleveland as sincere and honest, or you admit he was cynical and calculating. In either case, you have to apply that to both his critique of the overthrow, and his acceptance of it.

    Go ahead and dispute any particular fact you like, and I’ll correct it. Offer some real facts for rebuttal with references and I’ll adjust my assertions. But if empty rhetoric is all you have Mana, well…

  3. mana on 1/7/2006 at 10:52 am said:

    I’d like to point out your ego – “Go ahead and dispute any particular fact you like, and I’ll correct it.” Now, It’s no big secret that you deal in semantics, but to come out and tell everyone, well, thats a mighty bold statement. Or perhaps it’s just your ass thats showing and the inherent bias you have to accept facts to the contrary.

    1887

    # Pughe. “Likely to Happen Under the Coming Administration.” Cartoon, color lithograph. New York, N.Y. Puck, 1887. Hawai’i State Archives, Honolulu,Hawai’i. Kahn Collection.
    Caption: The Annexation hustlers in Hawai’i will start a genuine American real estate boom, and reap all the profits there are in it.
    Description:”President Dole” is auctioning off lots. Much activity is shown, “natives” are looking through a liquor bottle on a tripod supposedly surveying a lot, a parade advertising excursions to see lots is in progress, etc.

    # “To the Rescue.” (33K JPEG file) Cartoon, chromolith. San Francisco, California, The Wasp, July 16, 1887. Hawai’i State Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Kahn Collection [37/32].
    Description: King Kalakaua sits on a throne being toppled by the “revolution&quot. The schooner “Lurline” is in the background. A barefoot woman rushing back from the Jubilee represents Kapi’olani.

    # “Which will win?” (17K JPEG file) Cartoon, chromolith. San Francisco, California, The Wasp, August 27, 1887. Hawai’i State Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Kahn Collection [37/33].
    Description: Shows King Kalakaua drunk, his crown askew. John Bull is holding him up by an arm and emptying a bottle onto the ground. Caricatured Kapi’olani is holding his other arm. Cleveland is on his knees before them pleading for something

    1893

    # “Behind it All”, Cartoon, color lithograph. Judge, v 24, n 592 February 18, 1893. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives, Honolulu, Hawai’i. Drawer: Ills. Press 1-2, negative no. CP 103.875, slide no. XS 31.157.
    Caption: San Francisco, January 29 – Facts have leaked out which show clearly that the intrigues which have resulted in the overthrow of the Hawaiian government had been going on for several months, and that Claus Spreckels was a chief mover…”Spreckels is the heaviest stockholder in the Hawaiian Commercial Company which controls practically all the sugar produced in the Islands…The moment annexation goes into effect Hawaii becomes a vital part of this country, and every pound of sugar produced in the Islands receives 2 cents bounty. This amounts to a fat sum of forth dollars per ton and represent a good profit to the planters…Take it all around, annexation will put into Spreckel’s own pockets not less than $10,000 in cash” – New York Sun.
    Description: Shows Claus Spreckels standing behind a board with two holes through which his hands protrude. He is grabbing the necks of two men sitting in front of the board, who are labeled “Hawaiian Commission” and “U.S. State Department”. Spreckels is wearing a scarf on which is written “Syndicate of Speculators and Gamblers.”

    # Gresham, W.Q. “The Crowning Shame of the Hawaiian Business”. Cartoon, black and white, cut out of a publication and pasted in the scrapbook v1, 1893-1894, p120, of Mary Sophronia (Rice) Whitney. “Mrs. J.M.” 1837-1925, Cartoons describing the revolution of 1893. Hawaiian Historical Society, Honolulu, Hawai’i. 996.9 W61S.
    Caption: And the band played Liliuoklani.
    Description: Cleveland is depicted as a drum major leading a group of sailors carrying Lili’uokalani on an open palanquin. She is holding a fan reading “Liliuokalani by the grace of Grover Cleveland Queen of the Hawaiian…”

    # Victor. “A Democratic Version of a Famous Saying”. Cartoon, color lithograph. Judge, n.d., (’93 penciled in upper right corner). Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives, Honolulu, Hawai’i.
    Caption: Grover-“If any man hauls up the American flag, shoot him on the spot.”
    Description: John Bull is kneeling on England, with long arms reaching across the ocean to a ship named American Commerce with a sign reading “To be hauled down,” and to the Behring(sic) Sea Fisheries with an American flag and sign reading “To be hauled down next”. In the foreground Blount is taking down the American flag while Cleveland stands by clutching a paper which reads “Surrender of Hawaii.”

    # McAuley. “A Fair Exchange, etc.”. Carton, black and white, cut out of a publication and pasted in the scrapbook, v1, 1893-1894, p118 of Mary Sophronia (Rice) Whitney. “Mrs. J.M.”, 1837-1925. Cartoons describing the revolution of 1893. Hawaiian Historical Society. Honolulu, Hawai’i. 996.9 W61S
    Caption-Uncle Sam: “If you’d like to swap Presidents, my boy, I wouldn’t mind giving up a little to boot.”
    Description: Uncle Sam is standing behind a wall handing a picture of Cleveland to a caricatured little African-looking person outside the wall who is holding a picture of Dole.

    # McAuley. “The Girl I Left Behind.” Cartoon, black and white, cut out from a publication and pasted in the scrapbook, v1, 1893-1894, p114 of Mary Sophronia (Rice) Whitney. “Mrs. J.M.” 1837-1925. Cartoons describing the revolution of 1893. Hawaiian Historical Society. Honolulu, Hawai’i. 996.9 W61S.
    Description: Grover is walking away from a caricatured African woman sitting on a trunk labeled “Lily K”. She is sitting outside a closed gate on which a sign reading “No Admittance” is posted. A note sticking out of Grover’s pocket reads “President Dole’s reply”.

    # Victor. “Uncle Sam’s Cabin.” Cartoon, color lithograph. [New York], Judge, v24, n597, March 25, 1893. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Drawer Ills. Press 1-2, negative no. CP103.874, slide no. XS31.156.
    Caption: Hawaiian topsy (to Miss Columbia) – “I ‘spect you dunno what to do wif me, Miss Phelia. Golly! I’se causin’ a heap o’ trouble.”
    Description: A caricatured barefoot African girl wearing a bonnet a and belt labeled “Hawaii” is addressing Miss Columbia. A bearded man is sitting at a small round table; through the open door can be seen part of an island with palm trees.

    # Victor. “We Draw the Line at This.” Cartoon, color lithograph. [New York], Judge, v25, 6331, December 2, 1893. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Drawer Ills. press 1-2, Negative no. CP103.862, slide no. XS 30.786.
    Caption: Our good-natured country may allow this administration to give our market to England, sell our embassies to Anglomaniac dudes, and cause the reduction of wages to the European standard. But…
    Description: Soldiers are holding up on points of bayonets a round platform upon which sits a caricature of Lili’uokalani, feathers in her hair, crown askew, barefoot, holding a paper reading “scandalous government”, and “gross immorality”.

    # Victor. “When We Annex Hawaii.” (33K JPEG file) Cartoon, color lithograph. [New York], Judge, c.1893. Hawai’i State Archives. Kahn Collection. Also at Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Drawer Ills. press. Negative no. CP103.873, slide no. XS 31.155. Honolulu, Hawai’i
    Description: Several vignettes with captions.

    * “The bicycle will be in demand”
    * “Make Dave Hill king of the Sandwich Islands.”
    * “Transfer Tammany to the wilds of Hawaii.”
    * “A great American institution will be at once adopted”- i.e. swindlers, cheats, etc.
    * “Another great American institution will beautify the country” – i.e. saloon, liquor.
    * “The enterprising Yankee agents will shortly afflict the inhabitants.”
    * “What a magnificent field for Dr. Parkhurst.”
    * “Queen Lily will have a great time”-i.e. in a meuseum (sic) side show attraction.

    1894

    # “His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated.” (33K JPEG file) Cartoon, chromolith. [New York], Judge. n.p., c1894. Hawaiian Historical Society, Whitney scrapbook, p114, 999.6 W61S. Kahn Collection [37/35], Hawai’i State Archives. Also at Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i.
    Caption: Uncle Sam: “Grover this game has been too deep for you. Every move you’ve made has been a blunder, and now you’ve lost your Black Queen and the game.
    Description: Uncle Sam and Cleveland are playing chess with pieces representing the U.S. senators and Queen Lili’uokalani.

    # Taylor. “In His Second Childhood.” (17K JPEG file) Cartoon, color lithograph. New York, N.Y. Puck, v 35, n 886, February 28, 1894. Hawai’i State Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Kahn Collection.
    Description: Hoar is strapped into a high chair in the senatorial nursery and a page seems to be dangling a “Queen Lil” doll in front of him.

    # Gillam, Victor. “Lili to Grover:

    ‘You listened to my DOLE-ful tale;
    You tried your best – twas no avail.
    It’s through no fault of yours or mine
    That I can’t be your valentine.'”

    Cartoon, color lithograph. New York, Judge, v26, n644, February 17, 1894, . Cartoon, color lithograph. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Box: Ga-Gz, Acc. no. 1991.0386.0002.
    Caption: (The above PENNY VALENTINE was included in the last mail from Hawaii, but through some mistake was not transmitted to the Senate.)
    Description: Show a caricature of a native woman (Lili’uokalani) dressed in high heels and a small crown; behind her is an ax and chopping block labeled “For Dole”.

    # Victor. “The Old Year’s Legacy.” Cartoon, color lithograph. New York, Judge. Circa 1894. Hawai’i State Archives. Kahn Collection. Also at Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives, Honolulu, Hawai’i.
    Caption: The New Year – “Great Grover! That worthless old year has left some mighty tough jobs on my hands.”
    Description: Shows Old Man Time walking away with a bag of government business done during the year.The New Year’s baby is waving good-by, issues still to be dealt with include the Hawaiian difficulty.

    # “Washington’s Birthday.” Cartoon, color lithograph. New York, Judge, v26, n645, February 24, 1894. Hawai’i State Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Kahn Collection.
    Caption: Grover: “Say, he did some great things in his time. But look what I’ve done! He isn’t in it with me.”
    Description: Grover is standing on precariously stacked blocks labeled “Starvation”, “un-American”, “Tariff Reform Pizzle”, Civil Service Sham”, “Hawaii Failure”, “Income Tax”, talking to a statue of Washington

  4. mana on 1/7/2006 at 11:07 am said:

    But then again, if he was someone so easily influenced by public sentiment, then how can we trust that his initial bluster was anything but cynical, calculated ploy?

    Your Logic is flawed. For the simple fact that the US government is a democracy and not a totalitarian government.

  5. Wait a moment Mana, if you’re trying to assert that Cleveland blew with the wind on this, and changed his mind only because of public sentiment, how do you explain his bucking of public sentiment in the first place?

    All of the cartoons you show pre-12/18/1893 show that he was bucking public sentiment the whole way along. So when he made that statement, he was being honest and sincere.

    It sounds like in 1894, specifically post Morgan Report, he was being laughed at in the press because his bluster of 12/18/1893 was shown to be completely baseless. His acceptance of such a correction seems more based on the facts of the Morgan Report than the same drumbeat he had bucked earlier, don’t you think?

    Or is your contention merely that public sentiment was against Cleveland the entire time, and he changed his mind because he could no longer fight it?

    I’ll give him the benefit of the doubt for now, and assert that he honestly believed he was doing the right thing, and only changed his mind when presented with incontrovertible evidence to the contrary.

  6. I thought I’d do you the favor of addressing your evidence one point at a time, Mana. (Nice try by the way…wish you had something besides cartoons to share!)

    1893

    # “Behind it All”, Cartoon, color lithograph. Judge, v 24, n 592 February 18, 1893. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives, Honolulu, Hawai’i. Drawer: Ills. Press 1-2, negative no. CP 103.875, slide no. XS 31.157.
    Caption: San Francisco, January 29 – Facts have leaked out which show clearly that the intrigues which have resulted in the overthrow of the Hawaiian government had been going on for several months, and that Claus Spreckels was a chief mover…”Spreckels is the heaviest stockholder in the Hawaiian Commercial Company which controls practically all the sugar produced in the Islands…The moment annexation goes into effect Hawaii becomes a vital part of this country, and every pound of sugar produced in the Islands receives 2 cents bounty. This amounts to a fat sum of forth dollars per ton and represent a good profit to the planters…Take it all around, annexation will put into Spreckel’s own pockets not less than $10,000 in cash” – New York Sun.
    Description: Shows Claus Spreckels standing behind a board with two holes through which his hands protrude. He is grabbing the necks of two men sitting in front of the board, who are labeled “Hawaiian Commission” and “U.S. State Department”. Spreckels is wearing a scarf on which is written “Syndicate of Speculators and Gamblers.”


    Funny, Spreckels was trying to reinstate the Queen.


    # Gresham, W.Q. “The Crowning Shame of the Hawaiian Business”. Cartoon, black and white, cut out of a publication and pasted in the scrapbook v1, 1893-1894, p120, of Mary Sophronia (Rice) Whitney. “Mrs. J.M.” 1837-1925, Cartoons describing the revolution of 1893. Hawaiian Historical Society, Honolulu, Hawai’i. 996.9 W61S.
    Caption: And the band played Liliuoklani.
    Description: Cleveland is depicted as a drum major leading a group of sailors carrying Lili’uokalani on an open palanquin. She is holding a fan reading “Liliuokalani by the grace of Grover Cleveland Queen of the Hawaiian…”

    Looks like a critique of Cleveland’s attempt to undermine the legitimate Provisional Government of Hawaii. Obviously, he didn’t listen and continued along his merry way.

    # Victor. “A Democratic Version of a Famous Saying”. Cartoon, color lithograph. Judge, n.d., (’93 penciled in upper right corner). Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives, Honolulu, Hawai’i.
    Caption: Grover-“If any man hauls up the American flag, shoot him on the spot.”
    Description: John Bull is kneeling on England, with long arms reaching across the ocean to a ship named American Commerce with a sign reading “To be hauled down,” and to the Behring(sic) Sea Fisheries with an American flag and sign reading “To be hauled down next”. In the foreground Blount is taking down the American flag while Cleveland stands by clutching a paper which reads “Surrender of Hawaii.”

    Another critique of Cleveland’s attempt to undermine the legitimate Provisional Government of Hawaii. Certainly this shows public sentiment against Cleveland before his 12/18/1893 letter.

    # McAuley. “A Fair Exchange, etc.”. Carton, black and white, cut out of a publication and pasted in the scrapbook, v1, 1893-1894, p118 of Mary Sophronia (Rice) Whitney. “Mrs. J.M.”, 1837-1925. Cartoons describing the revolution of 1893. Hawaiian Historical Society. Honolulu, Hawai’i. 996.9 W61S
    Caption-Uncle Sam: “If you’d like to swap Presidents, my boy, I wouldn’t mind giving up a little to boot.”
    Description: Uncle Sam is standing behind a wall handing a picture of Cleveland to a caricatured little African-looking person outside the wall who is holding a picture of Dole.

    Again, more Cleveland critique before his blustery letter to Congress.

    # McAuley. “The Girl I Left Behind.” Cartoon, black and white, cut out from a publication and pasted in the scrapbook, v1, 1893-1894, p114 of Mary Sophronia (Rice) Whitney. “Mrs. J.M.” 1837-1925. Cartoons describing the revolution of 1893. Hawaiian Historical Society. Honolulu, Hawai’i. 996.9 W61S.
    Description: Grover is walking away from a caricatured African woman sitting on a trunk labeled “Lily K”. She is sitting outside a closed gate on which a sign reading “No Admittance” is posted. A note sticking out of Grover’s pocket reads “President Dole’s reply”.

    Again, a cartoon critical of Cleveland for his illegitimate demand of the Provisional Government to reinstate the Queen.

    # Victor. “Uncle Sam’s Cabin.” Cartoon, color lithograph. [New York], Judge, v24, n597, March 25, 1893. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Drawer Ills. Press 1-2, negative no. CP103.874, slide no. XS31.156.
    Caption: Hawaiian topsy (to Miss Columbia) – “I ‘spect you dunno what to do wif me, Miss Phelia. Golly! I’se causin’ a heap o’ trouble.”
    Description: A caricatured barefoot African girl wearing a bonnet a and belt labeled “Hawaii” is addressing Miss Columbia. A bearded man is sitting at a small round table; through the open door can be seen part of an island with palm trees.

    Not sure if this is pro or anti-annexation, but certainly reflects the trouble Cleveland is going through in his relations with Hawaii.

    # Victor. “We Draw the Line at This.” Cartoon, color lithograph. [New York], Judge, v25, 6331, December 2, 1893. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Drawer Ills. press 1-2, Negative no. CP103.862, slide no. XS 30.786.
    Caption: Our good-natured country may allow this administration to give our market to England, sell our embassies to Anglomaniac dudes, and cause the reduction of wages to the European standard. But…
    Description: Soldiers are holding up on points of bayonets a round platform upon which sits a caricature of Lili’uokalani, feathers in her hair, crown askew, barefoot, holding a paper reading “scandalous government”, and “gross immorality”.

    Anti-royalist sentiment, to be sure, reflecting the maladministration of Liliuokalani which instigated the overthrow.

    # Victor. “When We Annex Hawaii.” (33K JPEG file) Cartoon, color lithograph. [New York], Judge, c.1893. Hawai’i State Archives. Kahn Collection. Also at Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Drawer Ills. press. Negative no. CP103.873, slide no. XS 31.155. Honolulu, Hawai’i
    Description: Several vignettes with captions.

    * “The bicycle will be in demand”
    * “Make Dave Hill king of the Sandwich Islands.”
    * “Transfer Tammany to the wilds of Hawaii.”
    * “A great American institution will be at once adopted”- i.e. swindlers, cheats, etc.
    * “Another great American institution will beautify the country” – i.e. saloon, liquor.
    * “The enterprising Yankee agents will shortly afflict the inhabitants.”
    * “What a magnificent field for Dr. Parkhurst.”
    * “Queen Lily will have a great time”-i.e. in a meuseum (sic) side show attraction.

    Seems anti-annexation, but not necessarily pro-royalist.

    1894

    # “His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated.” (33K JPEG file) Cartoon, chromolith. [New York], Judge. n.p., c1894. Hawaiian Historical Society, Whitney scrapbook, p114, 999.6 W61S. Kahn Collection [37/35], Hawai’i State Archives. Also at Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i.
    Caption: Uncle Sam: “Grover this game has been too deep for you. Every move you’ve made has been a blunder, and now you’ve lost your Black Queen and the game.
    Description: Uncle Sam and Cleveland are playing chess with pieces representing the U.S. senators and Queen Lili’uokalani.

    Looks like it might’ve been after the Morgan Report, when Cleveland’s bluster was exposed for the empty, baseless rhetoric it was.

    # Taylor. “In His Second Childhood.” (17K JPEG file) Cartoon, color lithograph. New York, N.Y. Puck, v 35, n 886, February 28, 1894. Hawai’i State Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Kahn Collection.
    Description: Hoar is strapped into a high chair in the senatorial nursery and a page seems to be dangling a “Queen Lil” doll in front of him.

    Certainly post Morgan Report, very critical of Cleveland now that the facts have come out against him.

    # Gillam, Victor. “Lili to Grover:

    ‘You listened to my DOLE-ful tale;
    You tried your best – twas no avail.
    It’s through no fault of yours or mine
    That I can’t be your valentine.'”

    Cartoon, color lithograph. New York, Judge, v26, n644, February 17, 1894, . Cartoon, color lithograph. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Box: Ga-Gz, Acc. no. 1991.0386.0002.
    Caption: (The above PENNY VALENTINE was included in the last mail from Hawaii, but through some mistake was not transmitted to the Senate.)
    Description: Show a caricature of a native woman (Lili’uokalani) dressed in high heels and a small crown; behind her is an ax and chopping block labeled “For Dole”.

    Again, a continuation of criticism of Cleveland. Possibly by now word from the Morgan hearings had leaked out that Cleveland was completely wrong on the facts.

    # Victor. “The Old Year’s Legacy.” Cartoon, color lithograph. New York, Judge. Circa 1894. Hawai’i State Archives. Kahn Collection. Also at Bernice P. Bishop Museum Archives, Honolulu, Hawai’i.
    Caption: The New Year – “Great Grover! That worthless old year has left some mighty tough jobs on my hands.”
    Description: Shows Old Man Time walking away with a bag of government business done during the year.The New Year’s baby is waving good-by, issues still to be dealt with include the Hawaiian difficulty.

    If this is around January of 1894, the Morgan hearings are in full swing, and Cleveland is starting to look bad in the eyes of the public, because of his complete error in accepting the investigation of Blount.

    # “Washington’s Birthday.” Cartoon, color lithograph. New York, Judge, v26, n645, February 24, 1894. Hawai’i State Archives. Honolulu, Hawai’i. Kahn Collection.
    Caption: Grover: “Say, he did some great things in his time. But look what I’ve done! He isn’t in it with me.”
    Description: Grover is standing on precariously stacked blocks labeled “Starvation”, “un-American”, “Tariff Reform Pizzle”, Civil Service Sham”, “Hawaii Failure”, “Income Tax”, talking to a statue of Washington

    Not sure what “failure” they’re talking about – could be pro-royalist, could be pro-annexationist.

    Anyway Mana, great cartoons! Not very effective at showing Cleveland abandoned the Queen because of negative pressure, since that negative pressure was there from the very beginning. But I know you have a hard time associating evidence with an assertion you’re trying to prove :).

  7. mana on 1/7/2006 at 3:09 pm said:

    I’d like to point out your ego – “Go ahead and dispute any particular fact you like, and I’ll correct it.” Now, It’s no big secret that you deal in semantics, but to come out and tell everyone, well, thats a mighty bold statement. Or perhaps it’s just your ass thats showing and the inherent bias you have to accept facts to the contrary.

  8. mana on 1/7/2006 at 3:12 pm said:

    (Nice try by the way…wish you had something besides cartoons to share!)

    Oh, believe you me, I wish I did too. I would love to read some of the colorfully worded editorials/articles describing Hawaiians in those days.

  9. mana on 1/7/2006 at 3:32 pm said:

    I see you caught your bluster. Cleveland didn’t ascend to the presidency until 1893.

    While you would like to assert that Cleveland wasn’t persuaded by public sentiment, I’d like to remind you that it wasn’t until McKinley that annexation was finalized.

  10. ROTFL!!!

    You need to brush up on your U.S. history Mana:

    Grover Cleveland
    Twenty-Second President
    1885-1889
    Twenty-Fourth President
    1893-1897

    Looks like something of yours is hanging out :).

  11. Oh, believe you me, I wish I did too. I would love to read some of the colorfully worded editorials/articles describing Hawaiians in those days.

    So essentially, you’re shooting blanks, huh Mana? :)

    All kidding aside, there’s no question that bigotry was common during the day, on both sides. Blount himself spoke of white people as “superior by nature” and kanaka maoli possessing “defective intelligence”. The Morgan Report is filled with assertions that kanaka maoli were lesser than whites (although not as “treacherous” as our “Indians”).

    But the about-face that Cleveland did on the legitimacy of the overthrow was not precipitated by critical cartoons, or editorials of the day – it was because of the conclusions of fact reached by the Congress that he referred the matter to. If he had truly believed the Congress got it wrong, he had ample opportunity to say so, and plenty of power to take action as well.

  12. While you would like to assert that Cleveland wasn’t persuaded by public sentiment, I’d like to remind you that it wasn’t until McKinley that annexation was finalized.

    Okay, let’s review the chain of logic you’re trying to link:

    1) public sentiment caused Cleveland to recant his assertions that the overthrow was illegal and precipitated by the U.S.;

    2) this public sentiment was theoretically pro-royalist, anti-annexation;

    3) this public sentiment managed to influence the government until 1898 to deny the annexation of Hawaii.

    You’re falling down somewhere between 2 & 3 Mana.

    I think the lesson you should learn from the late date of annexation in 1898 is that regardless of the findings of fact of the Morgan Report exonerating the U.S. troops and Minister Stevens, there was a great deal of racism in the U.S. that wanted nothing to do with a far off island where the races mixed freely. It wasn’t until the exigencies of war with Spain brought the matter to a head.

    Did you know Robert Wilcox was a pro-annexationist? And that many kanaka maoli pre-1898, post-1894 were pro-annexationist because of their rabid hatred for the Republic of Dole?

    If anything, annexation turned the tables on the haoles, especially since they didn’t manage to limit suffrage the way they intended upon annexation.

    You should read Andrade Jr., Ernest (1996). Unconquerable Rebel: Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian Politics, 1880-1903. University Press of Colorado. ISBN 8-87081-417-6.

  13. mana on 1/7/2006 at 7:14 pm said:

    ROTFL!!!

    You need to brush up on your U.S. history Mana:

    Grover Cleveland
    Twenty-Second President
    1885-1889
    Twenty-Fourth President
    1893-1897

    Looks like something of yours is hanging out :) .

    You’re right. Slight oversight. You see, unlike you, I can admit when I’m wrong. I’m still firm that Cleveland relented because of public sentiment, NOT because he had a change of heart.

    All kidding aside, there’s no question that bigotry was common during the day, on both sides.

    Bigotry on both sides? Honestly, how valid is that argument?

    But the about-face that Cleveland did on the legitimacy of the overthrow was not precipitated by critical cartoons, or editorials of the day – it was because of the conclusions of fact reached by the Congress that he referred the matter to. If he had truly believed the Congress got it wrong, he had ample opportunity to say so, and plenty of power to take action as well.

    So say you, King Jere, lord of interpretation, Master of semantics…..

    You know what they say, opinions are like assholes, everbodies got one.


    1) public sentiment caused Cleveland to recant his assertions that the overthrow was illegal and precipitated by the U.S.;

    2) this public sentiment was theoretically pro-royalist, anti-annexation;

    3) this public sentiment managed to influence the government until 1898 to deny the annexation of Hawaii.

    You’re falling down somewhere between 2 & 3 Mana.

    This is great. It is also what makes you so much like the tick you are. The tick that gets under everybodies skin. That or you need another reading comprehension class or two.

    Try read ’em again, except this time try not to conform what I wrote to your agenda.

    I think the lesson you should learn from the late date of annexation in 1898 is that regardless of the findings of fact of the Morgan Report exonerating the U.S. troops and Minister Stevens, there was a great deal of racism in the U.S. that wanted nothing to do with a far off island where the races mixed freely. It wasn’t until the exigencies of war with Spain brought the matter to a head.

    I see you’re not familiar with Jim Crow or Mr. Morgan’s ulterior motives…. I do, however, like your snide turn of the subject from aggressive acquisition to a quasi-blase ‘we did it because we pitied you’ sentiment. You’re a real winner. :)

    Did you know Robert Wilcox was a pro-annexationist? And that many kanaka maoli pre-1898, post-1894 were pro-annexationist because of their rabid hatred for the Republic of Dole?

    If anything, annexation turned the tables on the haoles, especially since they didn’t manage to limit suffrage the way they intended upon annexation.

    Oh yea, I can see how that is a valid point….especially since Dole ended up as the damn head of the new organization. I suppose the Kanaka Maoli hated dole so much they wanted him to be their new president too. Really, get a grip will ya.

    You should read Andrade Jr., Ernest (1996). Unconquerable Rebel: Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian Politics, 1880-1903. University Press of Colorado. ISBN 8-87081-417-6.

    I would suggest you read ANYTHING not pro-annexation.

  14. You’re right. Slight oversight. You see, unlike you, I can admit when I’m wrong.

    Well, we’re just waiting for a few more admissions from you then! :)

    Seriously though, mahalo for taking it like a man. I hope when you pull out a secret diary entry of Cleveland indicating he capitulated solely because of public sentiment, you accept my humble apology for being wrong with grace as well.

    I’m still firm that Cleveland relented because of public sentiment, NOT because he had a change of heart.

    Well, you’re more than entitled to that opinion, and perhaps it’s even defensible. I suppose we should both do more research on the Cleveland presidencies, and maybe we could gather more evidence for either of our assertions. Care to suggest a good bio of Cleveland?

    Bigotry on both sides? Honestly, how valid is that argument?

    Well, I guess it goes like this – if you assert that racism drove people to their position, and it’s shown that there were racists on both sides (pro-royalist, pro-provisional government), it becomes harder to identify racism as the motivating factor for peoples’ opinions.

    I see you’re not familiar with Jim Crow or Mr. Morgan’s ulterior motives…. I do, however, like your snide turn of the subject from aggressive acquisition to a quasi-blase ‘we did it because we pitied you’ sentiment. You’re a real winner. :)

    Again, see the above explanation of the fallacy of using racism as an ulterior motive when racism applies to both sides.

    I would suggest you read ANYTHING not pro-annexation.

    I have. I read the entire Blount Report and the entire Morgan Report. Have you?

  15. Keopu on 1/25/2006 at 4:29 pm said:

    I’m sure if they parked a big ship with guns and cannons outside of your house…you wouldn’t be afraid now would you? Of course not…since that’s not a hostility. Oh well, I know I’d be just a little offended. It’s okay though, you’re the bigger man.

  16. Remeber Keopu, the history behind other landings of U.S. peacekeepers. After Kalakaua’s election, they were called to put down riots in support of Queen Emma. In 1889, during the Wilcox rebellion, they landed to protect U.S. property, but stood by completely neutrally as the Honolulu Rifiles fought the rebels.

    Everybody should have been able to expect the same kind of neutrality when they landed 1/16/1893. Swinburne went so far as to tell Carter (part of the committee of safety), “You see my orders are to protect the legation, the consulate, and the lives and property of American citizens, and to assist in preserving order; I do not know how to interpret that; I can do it in but one way. If the Queen calls upon me to preserve order I am going to do it.”

    The U.S. peacekeepers were a regular presence in Honolulu, and typically drilled weekly. They were not hostile, nor did they ever appear so to anyone.

    Swinburne’s Testimony

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